Climate change is a pressing global issue that has been the center of attention for decades. The scientific consensus is that the Earth`s climate is changing rapidly due to human activities, and immediate actions are required to mitigate the impact of climate change. Over the past few decades, various countries and international organizations have come together to address this issue and put in place major climate change agreements.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is the main international treaty aimed at addressing climate change. It was adopted in 1992 and has been ratified by almost all countries in the world. The primary objective of the treaty is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous human-induced interference with the climate system. The treaty also requires developed countries to provide financial and technological assistance to developing countries to help them reduce their emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement under the UNFCCC that was adopted in 1997, with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The protocol requires developed countries to reduce their emissions by a specific amount, usually expressed as a percentage of their emissions in a base year. The protocol has been criticized for not being effective, as some countries, such as the United States, did not ratify it, and others, such as China and India, were not required to reduce their emissions.
The Paris Agreement is the most recent major global agreement on climate change, adopted in 2015 under the UNFCCC. The Paris Agreement aims to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, with a target to limit warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The agreement requires all parties to set and communicate their targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and to report on their progress towards these targets. The agreement also includes provisions for financial and technological assistance to developing countries to help them adapt to the impacts of climate change.
The Montreal Protocol is a treaty aimed at protecting the ozone layer, which is another major environmental issue related to climate change. The protocol was adopted in 1987 and has been successful in reducing the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The reduction of these substances has also had a significant impact on the climate, as they are also potent greenhouse gases.
In conclusion, major climate change agreements have been put in place by international organizations and countries to address the pressing issue of climate change. The UNFCCC is the main international treaty aimed at addressing climate change, with the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement being the most significant agreements under it. The Montreal Protocol is also an important treaty that addresses the related issue of protecting the ozone layer. These agreements serve as an important framework for global action on climate change, and it is essential that all countries work together to implement them effectively.